C/C++ Program Code for 3D Elastic and Inelastic Collision of 2 Balls

Copy and Paste from Browser

      
//*****************************************************************************
//   This program is a 'remote' 3D-collision detector for two balls on linear
//   trajectories and returns, if applicable, the location of the collision for 
//   both balls as well as the new velocity vectors (assuming a partially elastic
//   collision as defined by the restitution coefficient).
//
//   All variables apart from 'error' are of Double Precision Floating Point type.
//
//   The Parameters are:
//
//    R    (restitution coefficient)  between 0 and 1 (1=perfectly elastic collision)
//    m1    (mass of ball 1)
//    m2    (mass of ball 2)
//    r1    (radius of ball 1)
//    r2    (radius of ball 2)
//  & x1    (x-coordinate of ball 1) 
//  & y1    (y-coordinate of ball 1)          
//  & z1    (z-coordinate of ball 1) 
//  & x2    (x-coordinate of ball 2)              
//  & y2    (y-coordinate of ball 2)         
//  & z2    (z-coordinate of ball 2)         
//  & vx1   (velocity x-component of ball 1) 
//  & vy1   (velocity y-component of ball 1)
//  & vz1   (velocity z-component of ball 1)          
//  & vx2   (velocity x-component of ball 2)         
//  & vy2   (velocity y-component of ball 2)
//  & vz2   (velocity z-component of ball 2)
//  & error (int)     (0: no error 
//                     1: balls do not collide
//                     2: initial positions impossible (balls overlap))
//
//   Note that the parameters with an ampersand (&) are passed by reference,
//   i.e. the corresponding arguments in the calling program will be updated 
//   (the positions and velocities however only if 'error'=0).
//   All variables should have the same data types in the calling program
//   and all should be initialized before calling the function.
//
//   This program is free to use for everybody. However, you use it at your own
//   risk and I do not accept any liability resulting from incorrect behaviour.
//   I have tested the program for numerous cases and I could not see anything 
//   wrong with it but I can not guarantee that it is bug-free under any 
//   circumstances.
//
//   I would appreciate if you could report any problems to me
//   (for contact details see  http://www.plasmaphysics.org.uk/feedback.htm ).
//
//   Thomas Smid   February 2004
//                 December 2005 (a few minor changes to improve speed)
//                 December 2009 (generalization to partially inelastic collisions)
//                 July     2011 (fix for possible rounding errors)
//******************************************************************************

   
    void collision3D(double R, double m1, double m2, double r1, double r2,
                     double& x1, double& y1,double& z1,
                     double& x2, double& y2, double& z2,
                     double& vx1, double& vy1, double& vz1,
                     double& vx2, double& vy2, double& vz2,
                     int& error)     {


       double  pi,r12,m21,d,v,theta2,phi2,st,ct,sp,cp,vx1r,vy1r,vz1r,fvz1r,
	           thetav,phiv,dr,alpha,beta,sbeta,cbeta,dc,sqs,t,a,dvz2,
			   vx2r,vy2r,vz2r,x21,y21,z21,vx21,vy21,vz21,vx_cm,vy_cm,vz_cm;

//     **** initialize some variables ****
       pi=acos(-1.0E0);
       error=0;
       r12=r1+r2;
       m21=m2/m1;
       x21=x2-x1;
       y21=y2-y1;
       z21=z2-z1;
       vx21=vx2-vx1;
       vy21=vy2-vy1;
       vz21=vz2-vz1;
       
       vx_cm = (m1*vx1+m2*vx2)/(m1+m2) ;
       vy_cm = (m1*vy1+m2*vy2)/(m1+m2) ;
       vz_cm = (m1*vz1+m2*vz2)/(m1+m2) ;  

	   
//     **** calculate relative distance and relative speed ***
       d=sqrt(x21*x21 +y21*y21 +z21*z21);
       v=sqrt(vx21*vx21 +vy21*vy21 +vz21*vz21);
       
//     **** return if distance between balls smaller than sum of radii ****
       if (d<r12) {error=2; return;}
       
//     **** return if relative speed = 0 ****
       if (v==0) {error=1; return;}
       

//     **** shift coordinate system so that ball 1 is at the origin ***
       x2=x21;
       y2=y21;
       z2=z21;
       
//     **** boost coordinate system so that ball 2 is resting ***
       vx1=-vx21;
       vy1=-vy21;
       vz1=-vz21;

//     **** find the polar coordinates of the location of ball 2 ***
       theta2=acos(z2/d);
       if (x2==0 && y2==0) {phi2=0;} else {phi2=atan2(y2,x2);}
       st=sin(theta2);
       ct=cos(theta2);
       sp=sin(phi2);
       cp=cos(phi2);


//     **** express the velocity vector of ball 1 in a rotated coordinate
//          system where ball 2 lies on the z-axis ******
       vx1r=ct*cp*vx1+ct*sp*vy1-st*vz1;
       vy1r=cp*vy1-sp*vx1;
       vz1r=st*cp*vx1+st*sp*vy1+ct*vz1;
       fvz1r = vz1r/v ;
       if (fvz1r>1) {fvz1r=1;}   // fix for possible rounding errors
          else if (fvz1r<-1) {fvz1r=-1;} 
       thetav=acos(fvz1r);
       if (vx1r==0 && vy1r==0) {phiv=0;} else {phiv=atan2(vy1r,vx1r);}

        						
//     **** calculate the normalized impact parameter ***
       dr=d*sin(thetav)/r12;


//     **** return old positions and velocities if balls do not collide ***
       if (thetav>pi/2 || fabs(dr)>1) {
           x2=x2+x1;
           y2=y2+y1;
           z2=z2+z1;
           vx1=vx1+vx2;
           vy1=vy1+vy2;
           vz1=vz1+vz2;
           error=1;
           return;
        }
       
//     **** calculate impact angles if balls do collide ***
       alpha=asin(-dr);
       beta=phiv;
       sbeta=sin(beta);
       cbeta=cos(beta);
        
       
//     **** calculate time to collision ***
       t=(d*cos(thetav) -r12*sqrt(1-dr*dr))/v;

     
//     **** update positions and reverse the coordinate shift ***
       x2=x2+vx2*t +x1;
       y2=y2+vy2*t +y1;
       z2=z2+vz2*t +z1;
       x1=(vx1+vx2)*t +x1;
       y1=(vy1+vy2)*t +y1;
       z1=(vz1+vz2)*t +z1;
        
 
       
//  ***  update velocities ***

       a=tan(thetav+alpha);

       dvz2=2*(vz1r+a*(cbeta*vx1r+sbeta*vy1r))/((1+a*a)*(1+m21));
       
       vz2r=dvz2;
       vx2r=a*cbeta*dvz2;
       vy2r=a*sbeta*dvz2;
       vz1r=vz1r-m21*vz2r;
       vx1r=vx1r-m21*vx2r;
       vy1r=vy1r-m21*vy2r;

       
//     **** rotate the velocity vectors back and add the initial velocity
//           vector of ball 2 to retrieve the original coordinate system ****
                     
       vx1=ct*cp*vx1r-sp*vy1r+st*cp*vz1r +vx2;
       vy1=ct*sp*vx1r+cp*vy1r+st*sp*vz1r +vy2;
       vz1=ct*vz1r-st*vx1r               +vz2;
       vx2=ct*cp*vx2r-sp*vy2r+st*cp*vz2r +vx2;
       vy2=ct*sp*vx2r+cp*vy2r+st*sp*vz2r +vy2;
       vz2=ct*vz2r-st*vx2r               +vz2;
        

//     ***  velocity correction for inelastic collisions ***

       vx1=(vx1-vx_cm)*R + vx_cm;
       vy1=(vy1-vy_cm)*R + vy_cm;
       vz1=(vz1-vz_cm)*R + vz_cm;
       vx2=(vx2-vx_cm)*R + vx_cm;
       vy2=(vy2-vy_cm)*R + vy_cm;
       vz2=(vz2-vz_cm)*R + vz_cm;  

       return;
}



Fortran Code

(Back To) Description